Posted on: 5 January 2015

Digital Book :
Hindu Achievements In Exact Science - A study in the history of scientific development
By Benoy Kumar Sarkar
Published by Longmans, Green & Co., New York - 1918

Read Book Online:

Download pdf Book:


The main object of this little book is to furnish some of the chronological links and logical affinities between the scientific investigations of the Hindus and those of the Greeks, Chinese, and Saracens. Details relating to thte migration of discoveries have been generally avoided, as they require a treatment more technical than the present scope and space admit. Nor have all the achievements of the Hindus in any branch of science been treated in an
exhaustive manner.

It has been sought to present a comprehensive, though very brief account of the entire scientific work of ancient and mediasval India in the perspective of developments in other lands. From the standpoint of modem science a great part of all that is described here is too elementary to have more than an anthropological interest. If, however, the facts of Hindu and Chinese science were made available in more extensive volumes than has yet been done, the students of comparative culture-history would find that the tendencies of the Oriental mind have not been essentially distinct from those of the Occidental.

Photograph from an album of 80 albumen prints taken by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey, showing the celebrated Iron Pillar of Delhi's Qutub Minar complex in the foreground, with an archway beyond. James Fergusson's description accompanying the image reveals: 'The large arches are fifty-three feet high and about twenty-two feet wide, the smaller ones about half that size. The carving is of an unexampled delicacy, and consists of Arabic inscriptions alternated with Hindoo ornament similar to that on other parts of the enclosure.' The pillar, cast from a pure iron which has never corroded, is a relic of the Gupta period and dates from the 4th century. How it came to stand within the 12th century mosque complex is unknown. It was originally a dhvajasthambha or victory standard and was possibly placed here or retained here by Qutub-ud-din Aibak to signify victory.

Copyright The British Library Board

 View Post on Facebook
 Download the Book from RBSI Archive

Comments from Facebook

Rare books, lesser known and should be learned facts...

The Mosque was built later on the site like all other mosques in India.

1918? Too bad Modi, or Harshvardhan, cannot be blamed :-)

This place was the place of the Shiva Temples of Chauhan Rajputs and Tomar Rajputs...... those temples were demolished by the muslim sultans and they used the broken stones to build that mosque and the stairs of Qutub Minar....... They used the idol carved stones on the stairs to denigrate the Hindu religion... This proves that muslims, during that tym also were religiously intolerant and full of hatred towards others religions and customs..

I donot know why people bring politics in this majestic monument of History ,!

Thank you for good information.

superb. ..scientific fact

Archive org is not working. Don't know when the ban will be lifted


Still cannot see the page on

Pillars in this compound have face sculptures, what more evidence is needed to prove they are they are of hindu temple. Islam doesnot allow for any symbol worship. No other mughal monuments have face or any symbolic signs encrypted on it.



The mosque in the premises of the Qutub is called 'kuwwat ul Islam' or terror of Islam ... Almost four decades back when I visited the monument on a school trip there used to be a plaque at the entry to the mosque gloating over the fact that this mosque was so called because it was constructed from the rubble of over 2000 Hindu , Jain and Buddhist temples... I remember even then as a young teenager I felt amazed that in a Hindu majority country such a plaque rubbing salt into the Hindu psyche would be put in such a prominent place ... The plaque has since been removed but one can clearly see the broken statuettes and figurines projecting at various points in the defunct mosque!

thanks for this posting

In some rare books you can't read the language due to hand writing n even some language too but some separate paper putting inside after many years by other one of his explanations of what is written in this book ...and some special one proved it yes something's as same written in it can guess n believe yep this is rare (condition n first look) ...bcoz in this time sp.material making idea not available ...........................................In other all deaseas treatment. ( including all )...with jadi buties (where it available and what it is? mentioned in it) few books have been sold here some time ago with good price but not equal to price actually is .....bcoz someone didn't know the worth of the same .Any way is these books are called rare or not ?

When it written you can't say but you can guess only as per your.....?

A scientist at NASA's Ames Research Centre in California has launched an online petition demanding that a lecture on 'Ancient Indian Aviation Technology' to be delivered at the 102nd Indian Science Congress in Mumbai in January be cancelled as it brings into question the "integrity of the scientific process". Dr Ram Prasad Gandhiraman's petition, already signed by 220 scientists and academicians around the world, places its opposition to the lecture in the larger context of the increasing attempts in India to mix mythology with science, and cites Prime Minister Narendra Modi calling Lord Ganesha a product of ancient India's unparalleled knowledge of plastic surgery as an example Dr Gandhiraman's petition says that it is "appalling" that such a prestigious science conference is providing a platform to pseudo-science talk. "We as scientific community should be seriously concerned about the infiltration of pseudo-science in science curricula with backing of influential political parties. Giving a scientific platform for a pseudo-science talk is worse than a systematic attack that has been carried out by politically powerful pseudo-science propagandists in the recent past. If we scientists remain passive, we are betraying not only the science, but also our children," the petition says.

Your talk of so called scientific innovations of the Hindu period is non-sensical. First you reform your caste-based social structure and then boast about the past which is hollow and dirty.

@ Rohini & Milind Sharma: Yes, all mosques of India were built on Hindu temples, Vatican used to be a Hindu temple, Americas were also discovered by Hindus first, ancient Hindus built aero-planes and did surgeries on humans. I don't want to defend the bad things done by few Muslim kings of the past and they were no different than the Hindu kings who also killed and looted for wealth and political power. Ignorants like you will always ignore that it was scores of Muslim Sufis who preached love and tolerance for non Muslims alike and till this day many Hindus still love them. Majority of the Sunni Muslims of South Asia are Barelvis and they are very much like Sufis in their attitude towards other religions. Islam itself does not call for the destruction of other religion's worship places. Christians and Jews can even worships in the mosques of Muslims according to Islam. Don't forget that it was your beloved Hindu kings who killed and maimed Buddhists and wiped them away from India, was that a sign of tolerance for you? How about condemning your very own right wing mindset? In year 1857, when Mughals lost power to British, Muslims were no more than 15% of the total population of India. A millennia of Muslim rule didn't resulted in the ousting of Hinduism from India, compare that to what Europeans did in Latin America where almost everyone is a Catholic now. @ All Muslim haters: Seems like this page is full of Muslim haters. How about reforming your religion first which is full of cast system? Any sane person knows how much horrible the cast system is and hundreds of millions of Hindus themselves are a victim of it, maybe that is also because of Islam and Muslims? I agree with Mr. Bharatbahi, we South Asians whether we are Hindus or non Hindus should reform our cast based social structures. And stop pointing the fault of other people when you yourself are so much imperfect. We Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are Indians as well who got scared of perceived Hindu intolerance and got sick of the accusations of Hindu right wing that since we are Muslims so we are outsiders and not Indians, result was a bloody partition. I feel ashamed of extremism done by few radical Muslims, maybe you should condemn your right wingers as well, just because Hindu extremism is confined within the borders of India does not make it less horrible than Islamist extremism.

The plaque at the entry of Qtub Complex is still there, both in english & hindi, and states the facts.

Hindi version...

Muhammad Hasan Mirza Sir no one in India pays any heed to the Hindu right wing... Suffice to say that every religion which has been persecuted in any corner of the world has found succour here..there is no doubt a glorious Sufi tradition in the subcontinent that should and would have acted as a glue but for the emergence of the hardline Wahabi interpretation of Islam... Contrary to whatever impressions those across the border have of the state of Indian Muslims , I would wager that they feel more secure in India than in the supposed Islamic Republic that is Pakistan....

Thanks for sharing the picture of the plaque Prabodh Ji ... I missed it on my last visit to the Qutub... That such a plaque still stands in a Hindu majority nation is testimony to the 'secular' credentials of this country ....I wonder if the secularists in the group would petition to have this odious plaque removed and this structure renamed to reflect its ignominious history?

Thank you Prabodh Chand Jain!

Muhammad Hassan Mirza ji and my other I dian brothers I often feel disgusting we use terms like Kings, mugals, babar humau the foot. All these kings and Mughals etc were nothing but looter dacoits who who later got organized other wise they were nothing less then pirates in sea. These people killed looted wealthy community accumulated wealth . So its foolish to expect things like understanding and respects for religon and other intellectuals stuff...they were bunch of barbaric looters with no home or not even proper blood line is the case of so called kings what they did looted each other greatef the loot biger the king. British understood this fact very well and hence mughal or raja ka namo nishan mitadiya coz brits knew how to deal with looters and dacoits. NOW britsh failed aginst common man who didnt have armies like so called Thd Great Mughals and raja maharaja...but stil brits failed misrebly againsf common fredom fighter. My point is lets not spoil our present and future peace just due to deeds done by looters and dacoits. A learned muslim and learned hindu never had or will never have any thing aginst each other's relgion, they rather seems to enjoy and celebrate each others festivals and religion.

@ Amit: Sir, I agree with you. Wahabi and Salafi sects are not tolerant of other religions and also not tolerant of other sects of Islam. In Indian Subcontinent Sufis and Barelvi sects of Islam have a tolerant tradition, there is no one single unified form of Islam, there are some bad interpretations and some good ones. Do not paint all Muslims with the brush of Islamism and Salafi/Wahabi. Also past experiences of Hindus must not be used to foment hatred against Muslims of today's world. And I am sorry to say this but since BJP came in power right wingers are gaining power in India and they are very much like the Muslim extremists of Pakistan. I hope everything goes well though.

@ Muhammad Hassan Mirza bhai..... i have visited qutub minar and seen it properly. Whatever i said is TRUE... we are not muslim haters.... but the things which the islamic extremists are doing right now allover the world forces us to post such things..... if islam really advocates peace, then people like u must preach those islamists who are killing innocents just in the name of islam. This killing is not new to the world. Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, Java, Sumatra etc were non islamic countries. After 6th century AD, the islam originated in final form and by the 7th century AD, all african nations, iran, central asia etc became islamic. This was not because of their own will, but it was because of brutal attacks and forcefull conversions by muslims. Sikandar Butashikan got his name because he was the biggest destroyer of idols and temples in Kashmir valley and he massacred numerous hindus. And sikandar butashikan was a Sufi..... and all sufi saints in india were of similar mentality...... all sufi shrines, either Chashme Shahi, Hazratbal (kashmir), ajmer sharif (rajasthan), salim chishti (fatehpur sikri) etc were once the places of hindu temples...... Muslim rulers, under the guidance of their Sufi Peers demolished temples and butchered the innocents.... this is the truth.... people should understand this..... regarding hindu kings...... hindu kings were not like muslim/european rulers, that they used to exploit their power..... there was not a single hindu princely state where the public protested against the king just like French revolution..... The hindu community loved their kings and those kings used to govern and administer based on Hindu scriptures and not like muslim rulers, those used to impose irrelevent nonsensical heavy taxes.... u can even see now..... all the princelly states governed by muslim rulers are highly unplanned and dirty till now, like agra, old delhi, tughalakabad, hyderabad, rampur, etc. These places are very dirty... on the contrary, the places governed by Hindu princes are still well planned like Vadodara, Patiala, Jaisalmer, Gwalior, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Chittor etc.. So have the complete knowledge..... visit the country... visit the places.... meet and talk to numerous people..... mere bookish knowledge is not good..... thank you...

@ Deepinder: I agree with you sir, learned people do not fight with each other on petty issues and celebrate diversity and understand differences, we need more people like this to start a dialogue between Hindus and Muslims of South Asia and spreading hate against each other will not serve this puspose. History of kings is different from history of people which generally get along well with each other.

If some one not seen thisonument pl visit belhi & see it it is wonderful

It is proven wisdom that course correction is necessaey for the humanity at large. Facts: 1: Indian Sub continent has had a past originated and based on vedic past. 2. Hindus are the decendents of the vedic age. 3. India was called the golden bird due to its wealth and natural resources and education. 4. In search of wealth from Alexander and muslim invaders plundered india time and again. 5. Babur was also one such invader who after plundering India did not return. And from then on India was plundered not only of its physical wealth but plundered it's social fabric. 6. Mughal rulers one after the other by cunning stratagies and brutal force carried out forceful conversions of hindus. 7. Levied heavy taxes on hindus and and slaughtered poor innocents in the name of non believers. 8. Most of our present day Indian muslims had their Hindu forefathers. 9. Islam and Christianity have fought bitter wars in the name of religion called crusades. The forceful conversions and extremist views resulted in countries changing religions as is reflected in history. 10. That extremism is still visible in all the terror attacks all over the world. Inference: 1. Islam as a religion does not preach peaceful co-existance as vedic hindu philosphy of "Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam". 2. Its followers were proven invaders and looters and plunderers. 3. They forced conversions. 4. Most Indian hindu converted to muslims suffered in their hands. 5. They lived in India enjoyed the favours from mughal rulers. Then divided India on two nation/religion theory. Pakistan was created. Yet Indian Hindus did not forsake the love of their lost brothers. Muslims stayed in India. 6. India stll continues to bleed in the name of Islam by our own blood line the vedic Hindus. 7. Why don't we realise that Hinduism is a way of life and not a religion created by individual perspective on single book guiding their actions and thaught process. 8. Why isn't there a possibility of home coming and creating a great nation with our own origional philosophy of life and living. Your opinions are solicited.

@ Alok: Everyone is evil apart from Hindus and no good can come out from Islam or Christianity, that is what your mindset is. Sadly with this kind of nonsensical thinking no dialogue and understanding between different religious groups can happen. By home coming I assume you mean forced conversion of Muslims and Christians to Hinduism? Kindly leave this mindset of yours, around 30% of world population is Christian and 24% is Muslim, with an extremist mindset such as yours there can not be any reconciliation between Hinduism and Abrahimic religions. I don't judge an average Hindu by what Sangh Parivar is doing in India . Again stop blaming other people and try to remove tons of social evils which plague South Asia. Cast system, discrimination based on creed, tribes, languages, skin colour, harassment of women, feudal democracy, persecution of indigenous people etc is practised by all people whether they are Hindus or Muslims, one should focus on samaj and samaji masail. Hatred and extremism is not good and Pakistan is a very good example in this regard. Hopefully India will learn from the mistakes of Pakistan. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are all Indians, so I don't see any reason to dislike and fight Indians. We are the same people.

Religion is likr a dress in the ptesent scenario.anybody can change it any time.but still there r people who adores admires this dress

Why should we have a religion? To tarnish other people? Make your logical thinking right. Its high time to leave the religion to ones personal choice and concider every individul as a national asset.

worth reading. Good evening, sir.

Dear MHM, You write well. I am an Indian who knows history reasonable well at macro level. I respect all those who can present logic and also ultimate respect for their country and its true past. Historical wrongs have been done and the percentages you quote for both the religions is a proof by it self. I am not conaieving with any group or party to bring home followers of any faith in particular. I still maintain that following any religion does not dissuade you to respect Vedic Hindu way of life. Our origin. You seem to agree and disagree at the same time. And dwell on social evils. Rather than what is happening in the world around us. The terror trail is speaking volumes. If we Indians do not speak in one language to fight such forces we shall be desimated. And this beautiful land will be converted in to Pakistan of today.


Okay Alok Saheb, we have our differences and agreements, no problem. I hope Hindus and Muslims and South Asians in general stop fighting with each other and start to concentrate on socio-economic issues. Enough with blood shed and bad past experiences, we should look towards the future.

I think that is the foundation pillar lndraprasta

The Sakti of lndra

India = lndra

aryans migrating from Central Asia brought their vedas and 22 crore gods, systematically exterminating then and now the tribals and were the original invaders. later common HINDUS embraced Buddha's teachings of peace and equality culminating in the dynasty of Asoka, after which the Brahmin mafia rose and destroyed Buddhism in its home. So this image of 'peaceful' hindus is pretty yet false. The Brahmins were and are parasites of India then and now. I know you will never accept the truth, yet I put this on record!

The Delhi Iron Pillar- a marvellous example of ancient Indian Metallurgy!!

AKG the myth of Aryans from centeal Asia is a gift of Brits to Indian history. I suggest you back up your argument with some tangible testimony. The creation of countries developing cultures is based on natural migration of people and their social customes. Hindus and Bharat had from the time in memorial accepted varied cultures and synthesised it society and religious faiths. Being a Hindu and taking pride in it is not your cup of tea as it seems. This is another problem that has plagued some of hindus like you. Take pride in what you are. If you don't respect your religion no one will. Stop being pseudo secular meaning anti Hinduism.


That undoubtedly, although the origin of the pillar Ashok is seemingly clear, so if it is known is that the city of Delhi in ancient times was lndraprasta, story we all know, with certainty must be a pillar of foundation and unless this prodigious and mystical pillar, worthy of the greatness of those times where Krishna performed his hobbies, preamble of the battle of Kurukshetra, gods and men walked daily in Bharat Varsa ... Pillar Inscription says that while that India follow pillar standing still exist, and there we have still standing grandfather grandparents all countries but suffered all kinds of invasions and wars, still maintains its egemonia, and where their national history and mystical story is exactly the same ...

Wonderful. Pl also see book by Publications Divn Min of I&B Govt of India- Bharatiya Vigyan Manjusha which gives details of many facets of ancient indian sciences !

We are Indians n we should live with love ,peace n think n act good that's all ... Any Religion is not wrong .And never try to pk .....and find out and prove the glory mentioned in religious book by all with a strong determinations by every religion as specially every societies super bodies ( punch) both end without interference of politics and they must confident with all among and exclude all negetivites n bad thinkings n act ...very difficult but one you start menas you create heaven in your ground one by one ...Regards all

??? What a following Sir!! Blind faith. Would you care to explain?

Brilliant. Very enlightening.

Allahu Akbar ..Fakhr e Hind. Long live the combined & diverse architecture of our gr8 Republic.

We cant build proper roads, maintain our heritage, clear our garbage, deliver justice and a piss poor performance in football and athletics yet these people ask us to be proud of our past? I would rather be content with a small improvement in the present.

Identity of Mogul architecture.

Who said this is Mughal architecture? The Qutub Minar was a creation of the Slave dynasty. Later additions were by Alaudin Khilji..

The past does have some stunning edifices, and they deserve the admiration due to them.

Look into these books : science and society in Ancient India...two volumes of Studies in the History of Science in India Debiprasad Chattopaadhyaaya..there are so many by eminent people on Indian Science...without even aaeroplane, space travel , Nuclear bombs , those contributions are to be proud about..

Did the Aryans (our ancestors ) really come from central Asia? How come Rama and Krishna and even Ma Durga are dark complexioned?